The Price of Federalism

The Price of Federalism

What is the price of federalism? Does it result in governmental interconnections that are too complex? Does it create overlapping responsibilities? Does it perpetuate social inequalities? Does it stifle economic growth? To answer these questions, Paul Peterson sets forth two theories of federalism: functional and legislative. Functional theory is optimistic. It says that each level of the federal system is well designed to carry out the tasks for which it is mainly responsible. State and local governments assume responsibility for their area's physical and social development; the national government cares for the needy and reduces economic inequities. Legislative theory, in contrast, is pessimistic: it says that national political leaders, responding to electoral pressures, misuse their power. They shift unpopular burdens to lower levels of government while spending national dollars on popular government programs for which they can claim credit. Both theories are used to explain different aspects of American federalism. Legislative theory explains why federal grants have never been used to equalize public services. Elected officials cannot easily justify to their constituents a vote to shift funds away from the geographic area they represent. The overall direction that American federalism has taken in recent years is better explained by functional theory. As the costs of transportation and communication have declined, labor and capital have become increasingly mobile, placing states and localities in greater competition with one another. State and local governments are responding to these changes by overlooking the needs of the poor, focusing instead on economic development. As a further consequence, older, big cities of the Rust Belt, inefficient in their operations and burdened by social responsibilities, are losing jobs and population to the suburban communities that surround them. Peterson recommends that the national government adopt policies that take into account the economic realities identified by functional theory. The national government should give states and localities responsibility for most transportation, education, crime control, and other basic governmental programs. Welfare, food stamps, the delivery of medical services, and other social policies should become the primary responsibility of the national government.

The Price They Paid

Desegregation in an African American Community

The Price They Paid

In this compelling book, Curtis and Vivian Morris put a human face on desegregation practices in the South. Focusing on an African American community in Alabama, they document not only the gains but also the significant losses experienced by students when their community school was closed and they were forced to attend a White desegregated school across town. This in-depth volume includes: -- A letter by Dr. William Hooper Councill and speeches by George Washington Trenholm -- two African American leaders who worked with communities to provide quality schooling for African American children during segregation. -- An insider's view of what life was like inside a segregated African American school -- including interviews with graduates who discuss how it felt to be in a caring and nurturing school that provided an atmosphere much like that of a family. -- Actual events that demonstrate the profound negative impact of using skin color and race as a basis for preferential treatment -- including testimonials from parents and students who experienced racial discrimination in their new school. -- A valuable look at the unmet promises of school desegregation that can help us provide a quality education for all children in the 21st century.

Paying the Price

Ignacio Ellacuría and the Murdered Jesuits of El Salvador

Paying the Price

On November 16, 1989, On the campus of El Salvador's University of Central America, six Jesuits and two women were murdered by members of the Salvadoran army, An army funded and trained by the United States. One of the murdered Jesuits was Ignacio Ellacuría, The university's Rector and a key, although controversial, figure in Salvadoran public life. From an opening account of this terrible crime,Paying the Priceasks, Why were they killed and what have their deaths meant? Answers come through Teresa Whitfield's detailed examination of Ellacuría's life and work. His story is told in juxtaposition with the crucial role played by the unraveling investigation of the Jesuits' murders within El Salvador's peace process. A complex and nuanced book,Paying the Priceoffers a history of the Church in El Salvador in recent decades, An analysis of Ellacuría's philosophy and theology, An introduction to liberation theology, and an account of the critical importance of the University of Central America. In the end, Whitfield's comprehensive picture of conditions in El Salvador suggest that the Jesuits' murders were almost inevitable. A crime that proved a turning point in El Salvador's civil war, The murders expressed the deep tragedy of the Salvadoran people beyond suffering the heartless cruelty, violence, and deceitfulness of a corrupt military and their patrons in the U.S. government. Whitfield draws on her extensive research of Jesuit archives and private papers, Ellacuría's diaries, documents declassified by the U.S. government, and 200 interviews conducted with sources ranging from Jesuits to Salvadoran military officers, U.S. officials and congressmen to human rights campaigners. Author note:Teresa Whitfieldspent several years in El Salvador And The United States researching the murders and has also produced a television documentary of the incident, broadcast in more than eight countries. She is currently a freelance writer and television producer based in London.

The Price of Oil

Corporate Responsibility and Human Rights Violations in Nigeria's Oil Producing Communities

The Price of Oil

Attempts to Import Weapons

The Price Index

The Price Index


The Price of Smoking

The Price of Smoking

Quantification of the costs of smoking for the individual smoker and of the costs imposed on family and society.

The Price of Greatness

Resolving the Creativity and Madness Controversy

The Price of Greatness

Exploring the lives and achievements of over 1,000 extraordinary men and women, this book offers answers to the age-old questions about the relationship between mental illness and greatness, and also reveals factors that predict creative achievement. The book is filled with colorful stories about many of the most eminent artists, scientists, social activists, politicians, soldiers, and business people of our time. Moving beyond anecdotal accounts, The Price of Greatness is based on over 10 years of original scientific research on major 20th-century figures. Delving into many of humankind's greatest achievements and the special attributes and backgrounds of those who accomplished them, this illuminating work will interest anyone who wants to know why some people achieve fame - and what price they may pay in the process.

The Price Index and Its Extension

A Chapter in Economic Measurement

The Price Index and Its Extension

The book is not an unrestricted survey engaging a vast and repetative literature, but a systematic treatise within clear boundaries, largely a document of Afriat's own work. The original motive of the work is to elaborate a concept of what really is a price index, which, despite some kind of price-level notion having a presence throughout economics, in theory and practice, had been missing.

The Price Advantage Workbook

Step-by-Step Exercises and Tests to Help You Master The Price Advantage

The Price Advantage Workbook


What Is the Price?

Career Vs. Family

What Is the Price?

Having a successful career. Being a good spouse. Being a good parent. Can these ever really mix? What will you need to sacrifice? In What Is the Price? first-time author Dr. Diana Wilkins takes a look at the lives of several different women to explore this very question. Challenge and realize your own values through the lives of Monique, Anna, Tony, and several others in scenarios crafted from real-life experiences. Encounter the intimate details of everyday people trying to navigate the roads of life, and discover the freedom of finding peace amidst societal pressures choosing a career over family. What Is the Price? is an informative, easy-to-read tool, perfect for small groups or personal independent reflection.